Ologies, Isms, & Ations

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This is by no means a comprehensive list of all ologies, isms, and ations but we have compiled this list to give brief descriptions of different beliefs and doctrines regarding the Bible and other non-Biblical religions and belief systems.

ology
a subject of study; a branch of knowledge

Angelology – an·gel·ol·o·gy
The study or doctrine of angels; this may include the study of fallen angels (demonology) and Satan (satanology)

Anthropology – an·thro·pol·o·gy
Greek anthropos for “man”
The study or doctrine of man, including man’s origins, man’s relation to God, and the essence of humanity

Bibliology – bib·li·ol·o·gy
The study or doctrine of the Bible and its relationship to the Christian faith. The study of how it was received and preserved. The study of translation and application the Bible.

Cosmology – cos·mol·o·gy
The study of the origin and nature of the universe

Christology – Chris·tol·o·gy
The study or doctrine of Jesus Christ and His claims of who He was. The study of who the apostle say Jesus was.

Doxology – dox·ol·o·gy
A liturgical formula of praise to God.

Ecclesiology – ec·cle·si·ol·o·gy
Greek ecclesia for “gathering”
The study or doctrine of the Church

Eschatology – es·cha·tol·o·gy
Greek eschatos meaning “last”
The study or doctrine of last things or “the end times”, end times prophecy, and the ultimate destiny of humanity

Etymology – et·y·mol·o·gy
The study of the origins of words and how meanings have changed over time.

Hamartiology – ha·mar·ti·ol·o·gy
Greek hamartia for “missing the mark, error”
The study or doctrine of sin

Phenomenology – phe·no·men·ol·o·gy
A method of studying religion where the scholar does
not judge the beliefs of a religion as true or false but
tries to see the world as the believer sees it

Pneumatology – pneu·ma·tol·o·gy
Greek pneuma for “wind” “breath” or “spirit”
The study or doctrine of the Holy Spirit

Systematic Theology – sys·tem·at·ic the·ol·o·gy
The process of studying theology one topic at a time

Soteriology – so·te·ri·ol·o·gy
Greek sōtērí for “salvation, deliverance”
The study or doctrine of salvation through Jesus Christ

Theology Proper – the·ol·o·gy
Greek theos for “God, god”
The study or doctrine of the nature of God


ism
a distinctive practice, system, or philosophy

Adoptionism – adop·tion·ism
The non-Trinitarian belief that Jesus was not God incarnate but was adopted by God

Agnosticism – ag·nos·ti·cism
1. The doctrine that certainty about first principles or absolute truth is unattainable and that only perceptual phenomena are objects of exact knowledge.
2. The belief that the existence or nonexistence of a deity or deities cannot be known with certainty.

Animism – an·i·mi·sm
The belief that all natural phenomena are possessed by souls or spirits which animate them

Annihilationism – an·ni·hi·la·tion·ism
(Also known as extinctionism or destructionism) is a Christian belief that apart from salvation the final punishment of human beings results in their total destruction rather than their everlasting torment.

Anthropomorphism – an·thro·po·mor·phi·sm
The attributing of human characteristics to God (eg. God’s nostrils in Isaiah 65:5)

Antinomianism – an·ti·no·mian·ism
The belief that once a person is saved, they no longer have moral obligations

Arminianism – ar·min·i·an·ism
The doctrinal teachings of Jacobus Arminius or his followers, especially the doctrine that Christ died for all people and not only for the elect.

Atheism – a·the·ism
Disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods.

Biblical Literalism – bib·li·cal lit·er·al·ism
The way of interpreting the Bible holding that all of scripture is literal except for those obviously figurative, poetic, or metaphorical.

Calvinism – cal·vin·ism
The Protestant theological system of John Calvin and his successors, which develops Luther’s doctrine of justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God and the doctrine of predestination.

Catholicism – ca·thol·i·cism
The faith, practice, and church order of the Roman Catholic Church; adherence to the forms of Christian doctrine and practice which are generally regarded as Catholic rather than Protestant or Eastern Orthodox.

Cessationism – ces·sa·tion·ism
The belief that the charismatic gifts of “speaking in tongues”, prophecy, and healing were only authentic for the apostolic age to usher in the birth of the Church; that after that these miraculous gifts were no long needed and therefore ceased. The belief that the gifts we witness today are either purely emotional ecstaticism at best, or demonic possession at worse.

Compatibilism – com·pat·i·bil·ism
The belief that human free will and determinism are totally compatible

Continuationism – con·tin·u·a·tion·ism
The belief that the miracle gifts of “speaking in tongues”, healing, and prophecy have continued from the moment of Acts 2 to the present time

Deism – de·ism
Or “Clockmaker theology”. The belief that God created the universe and left it alone. That God does not seek a relationship with his creation.

Deteriminism – de·ter·min·ism
The ideology that everything that happens in the universe is determined by an outside cause

Dispensationalism – dis·pen·sa·tion·al·ism
The belief that God’s promises to old covenant Israel do not transfer to the new covenant Church; that all of God’s promises to Israel in the old testament either have been fulfilled or will be fulfilled during the eschatological 1000 year reign.

Docetism – do·ce·tism
From the Greek dokeo, meaning to seem. The heresy that Jesus was not “the word made flesh.” In this view the Word could not be made flesh because all matter was evil. Jesus only seemed to be in the flesh. Condemned by the Council of Chalcedon in 451.

Egalitarianism – e·ga·lit·ar·ian·ism
The belief that both males and females have unlimited capability of fulfilling all roles in both the church and the home. That the husband is not the head of the wife but both are equal parts head of the home. That women may fulfill whatever role in the church they feel called including pastor.

Empiricism – em·pir·i·cism
The belief that all knowledge can only come from empirical evidence, or tested by experience

Eutychianism – eu·tych·ian·ism
The belief that Jesus was neither fully God nor fully man but was more of a mixture between the two; a demi-god

Evangelism – e·van·ge·lism
The spreading of the gospel by public preaching or personal witness.

Fatalism – fa·tal·ism
The belief that all events (past, present, and future) are predetermined by the will of God; that man is not ultimately responsible for his actions

Gnosticism – gnos·ti·cism
From the Greek “gnosis” for knowledge. The docetic belief that the universe was created in error and therefore all of matter has always been imperfect and inferior  to the spiritual realm.

Henotheism – he·no·the·ism
Acknowledging, without worship, the possible existance of other gods or deities that are not of ones own faith

Infralapsarianism – in·fra·lap·sar·ian·ism
God’s predetermined will that 1)God will create man. 2)Man will fall. 3)God will provide sufficient salvation to all. 4)God will choose some for salvation. That each of these four steps is the sovereign will of God.

Legalism – le·gal·ism
Or “nomism”, the belief that good works aren’t just an evidence of salvation but that they actually save a person or that good works keep a person saved; that salvation is accomplished with faith in conjunction with good works as opposed to salvation by faith alone in the work of Christ alone

Modalism – mod·al·ism
Also known as Sabellianism. A heresy that states God reveals Himself in three modes: Father, Son, Holy Spirit but not at the same time.

Monergism – mo·ner·gism
That only God through the work of the Holy Spirit is responsible for regeneration

Nihilism – ni·hil·ism
1. The absolute rejection of any religious system 2. the belief that life is objectively meaningless

Paganism – pa·gan·ism
1. Any religion outside of the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
2. Any polytheistic religion
3. A member of a religious, spiritual, or cultural community based on the worship of nature or the earth; a neopagan.

Panentheism – pan·en·the·ism
“All-in-god” The belief that God transcends nature, yet He is dependent on and effected by it.

Pantheism – pan·the·ism
The universe and all matter are divine or are a part of God rather than being separate yet created by God

Partialism – par·tial·ism
The view that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not one in the same substance and essence but are merely parts of the whole.

Pelagianism – pe·la·gian·ism
The denial of original sin; that each person is born in the same condition as Adam before the fall.

Polytheism – pol·y·the·ism
Belief in the existence of and worship of more than one god

Postmodernism – post·mod·ern·ism
The worldview that is usually skeptical of classically held dogma, traditional religious views, and objective truth

Relativism – re·la·tiv·ism
Or subjectivism, the belief that all truth is relative to the culture or society or even individual perception. That truth is not absolute.

Supralapsarianism – sup·ra·laps·ar·i·an·ism
God decreed 1)that the salvation of some and the eternal condemnation of others 2)to create those elected and eternally condemned 3)to allow the fall 4)to provide the way of salvation for the elect through Christ.

Symbolic Memorialism – sym·bol·ic mem·or·ial·ism
The Zwinglian doctrine that the Lord’s Supper (communion) is purely symbolic. That Christ is only as present as is in the heart of the partaker.

Syllogism – syl·log·ism
The process of forming a conclusion based on two or more, assumed to be true, premises. Example: Premise A- All men are mortal. Premise B- John is a man. Conclusion- John is mortal.

Syncretism – sync·ret·ism 
The erroneous practice of merging aspects of differing beliefs into one. Usually done for the sake of making a new or strange belief system more appealing.

Synergism – syn·erg·ism
The belief that salvation is attained by combining man’s good works and God’s grace. That neither grace alone nor works alone save.

Textual Criticism – tex·tu·al  cri·ti·ci·sm
The method of determining what the original texts said and meant by studying their most ancient manuscripts

Theism – the·ism
Belief in the existence of a god or gods, especially belief in one god as creator of the universe, intervening in it and sustaining a personal relation to his creatures

Universalism – uni·ver·sal·ism
The heresy that all of mankind will abide in heaven, whether immediately after being judged or, for the unrighteous, after a temporary stay in hell.


ation
process, action; state of

Adoption – a·dop·tion
What happens when those, whom through faith in Christ, become God’s children; co-heirs of Jesus Christ

Baptismal Regeneration – bap·tis·mal  re·gen·er·a·tion
The doctrine or belief that regeneration does not and will not occur until the person has been baptized by water; not that regeneration is solely dependent on baptism but that it is a necessary precondition that must occur

Consubstantiation – con·sub·stan·tia·tion
Typically Lutheran doctrine that states the bread and wine during communion are spiritually the blood and flesh of Jesus. That they spiritually exist ‘with’ the actual body of Jesus.

Election – e·lec·tion
That God chooses or elects people to be the objects of His grace and for other purposes; often associated with salvation

Expiation – ex·pi·a·tion
The taking away of guilt through the payment of a penalty or the offering of an atonement

General Revelation – gen·er·al  rev·el·a·tion
Or Natural Revelation, that God can be known by what He has provided through His creation, nature. Not specifically a saving revelation but a knowing revelation

Glorification – glo·ri·fi·ca·tion
What happens at the end, whether by death, or at the second coming of Jesus when the believer is conformed perfectly through Christ’s image

Imputation – im·pu·ta·tion
1. Of sin: ascribing or attributing the curse of sin from the one man, Adam, to all that were born from Adam
2. Of righteousness: ascribing or attributing the righteousness of the second Adam, Jesus, to all that are born of the Spirit

Incarnation, the – in·car·na·tion
When “the Word” was made flesh. Jesus, God the Son, becoming flesh by being born of a woman

Justification – jus·ti·fi·ca·tion
The declaration from God that we are righteous and free from the stain of sin

Penal Substitution – pe·nal  sub·sti·tu·tion 
The doctrine that Christ’s death on the cross was a substitution for the punishment of sinners

Predestination – pre·des·ti·na·tion
1. The doctrine that all events have been foreordained by God.
2. Of salvation: that those who have been, are, or will be saved were pre-chosen by God to be saved. Double Predestination says that God chose, before time, some for salvation and others for eternal damnation

Protestant Reformation – prot·es·tant ref·or·ma·tion
a 16th-century movement for the reform of abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of the Reformed and Protestant Churches.

Progressive Revelation – pro·gress·ive rev·el·a·tion
Through the progression of time, God unveiled more of His plan of salvation. That revelation becomes fuller as time continued throughout scripture.

Propitiation – pro·pi·ti·a·tion
The act of appeasing the wrath of God

Reconciliation – rec·on·cil·i·a·tion
Being brought back in to right relationship with God

Redemption – re·demp·tion
Being bought back from being in slavery to sin

Regeneration – re·gen·er·a·tion
The act of being born not of the flesh but of the Spirit while in the earthly body

Sanctification – sanc·ti·fi·ca·tion
The work of the Holy Spirit to remake us into the likeness of Christ in this lifetime

Special Revelation – spe·cial  rev·el·a·tion
That knowledge or belief in God is mainly dependent on scripture or supernatural means

Suprasubstantiation – sup·ra·sub·stan·tia·tion
The Reformed doctrine that, in communion, the bread and wine are real representatives of the flesh and blood of Jesus. That when the partaker eats and drinks in communion they are present with Christ at that moment

Transubstantiation – tran·sub·stan·ti·a·tion
The Catholic doctrine that, in the Lord’s Supper, the bread and wine actually become the flesh and blood of Jesus